I will analyse Black Death and its trouble effects. Plague start between 1347-1351 in Europa. The plague is a real disaster that has caused more deaths than many wars in the world. Nearly half of the European people could not be prevented because of this epidemic. Its influence was so great that its killed more hundred million people in a few years. The epidemic seen at first on poor and in need care people, and it was unavoidable that upper class would be effected from the epidemic. First of all I want to explain that what is the plague and its causes. In the middle ages the most common epidemic was bubonic plague.
The plague was contagious from viruses that carried by fleas and rats. Hays said that” The bite of the flea sends the bacteria to the lymphatic system of the human body and causes painful swellings in the groin, limbs and under the armpits called bubonic. The bite of the flea sends the bacteria to the lymphatic system of the human body and causes painful swellings in the groin, limbs and under the armpits called cucumber. Otherwise the patient dies in three days after the first swelling.(37-38).
The reason for the emergence of the disease today is known as a medical definite, but the people of the period have various ideas about it. The first is that this is a punishment of God. According their idea, it was a punishment which given from God. The most common believed reason was bad weather. It was believed that hot and humid air was disrupted, entered into the lungs and caused a damaged blood. It was believed that hot and humid air was damaged, mixed into the lungs and caused a damaged blood. When we look at the spread of the plague to Europe, we first have to address Asia.
Because even though the views of the plague differ , the only thing that everyone accepts is that it comes from the Asian continent. According to general acceptance, the plague first appeared in China. In the spring of 1349, it continued to spread from London to Norway, Denmark and Germany. In the same year, the central countries such as Portugal, Austria and Hungary was also affected by the disease. n 1352 it was seen that it moved to Russia. Also , the plague never reached Greenland, but it does not mean that the public is not frightened.
If we look at how people have an attitude as soon as they faced the disease, we see that they have a wide range of ideas to protect themselves from disease. Of course, desperation is at the top level. Even the doctors does not know how to protect themselves from the epidemic. Siraisi said that “The most famous example of a request by a governmental authority for the expert opinion of a medical faculty is doubtless the solidation of a report on the causes of the Black Death from the Paris faculty by King Philip VI in 1348.”(62). Medieval doctors thought that they should be out of the country in order to avoid this disease, because they believed there were less sick people there. There were also doctors who wanted healthy people to stay in the city but not to participate in festivals and other crowded community activities.
The biggest causes of disease is bad weather, the first methods of eliminate the effects of air is carrying aromatic flower bundles. For this, the flower bouquets sells on the roads. There are also music listeners not to think about the patients around them. Some thought that the only way to get rid of this disease was to leave the city, but not for the poor. Porter explain that “This is why the plague has affected the poor families a little more, if not a significant difference.”(10). On the other hand Johnson add that “To protect from disease, wearing strange masks and special prayer is another method.”(15).
Placing black flags on the church towers is another measure in order to make the presence of the sick people out. People continued to pass on the infection to others also caught the disease from dying is required as soon and safely get rid of these bodies. Therefore, various applications have been developed. Elliot claims that “The bodies are left at the doors of the houses and collected by the staff and taken to the large carts and taken away.”(10). Also in Avignon and France, the river has blessed the pope to throw the plagues of the pope.
As physicians are more likely to get sick, they have to take more precautions and they usually wear shirts and gloves and nasal bags soaked with cinnamon and herbs. Other measures include burning balls made of aromatic oils, bathing in human urine, wearing amulets and having dead animals inside the houses. Patrick add that “Other measures include burning balls made of aromatic oils, bathing in human urine, wearing amulets and having dead animals inside the houses”(306). In Italy, where the plague was first seen and possibly the most damaged, the official orders of the plague victims and beds were buried, the houses were disinfected with smoke and cleaned with vinegar. Health delegations organized mass funerals outside the city.
Professors who are well-known in Italy, Gentile de Foligno and Giovanni della Penna have developed strategies against the plague and sent to civilian officials and doctors. The Perugia administration asked the doctors to examine the cadavers of plague victims. Also regulated laws to protect against plague. I think , probably in these laws people are banned or bound by certain rules. Perhaps the most logical measure among the measures has been applied in Italy in the country with the first damage. This measure is to close the infected people in one place to prevent the disease of the other people to quarantine.
The most important point to be touched on the death of the land is its effects on medieval Europe. These effects are very diverse and important. Because this epidemic has not only affected every part of the people but also social, cultural, economic and political life. First, the effects on the population should be evaluated. Because one out of every three people died because of the plague epidemic. Some villages have disappeared while others have lost most of their people. The plague has perhaps shown its greatest effect on economic life. The economic impact of this outbreak, which causes many developments, can be explained as follows. Firstly, the number of people who working in the fields or in the mills decreased with the decrease of the population.
In fact, the number of employers who managed to survive the outbreak of the epidemic or landowners could not find enough staff to run. Similarly, the survivors of the working class have turned their prices and working conditions into their own favor when they realize this situation of the employers. They charged more for less working hours. Desperate employers are in need of these workers in order to continue their lives. So they had to give the money they wanted and accept their terms. it is understood that the wages paid for all kinds of work have increased. The largest increase had been in agriculture . This may be due to the fact that the villagers are doing this and many villagers have died from the plague. Because the villages where the microbe-carrying rodents are more inhabited than the city. Therefore, the spread is faster and the effect is greater.
The death of a large number of people means that a lot of land and manor remain empty. There was an extreme decline in both rents and land sale prices when there were no people to rent or buy land. This situation made the villagers happy. Because with the increase in the amount of money printed per capita, many of them have become landlords of their own land by renting land or paying much less money. There has also been an increase in the number of landlords to search for mines, with the exception of the peasants on land demand. It should be noted that the only increase in wages is not peasants or workers.
Hearder said that “The wages of doctors, one of the first people to consult on cure the disease, has also increased. In fact, it is stated that this increase is doubled and that the wage is doubled.(99). The plague also has damaged to the international trade. Both land and sea trade stopped. While ships coming from outside are not approaching the ports, there are not allowed to ship exits from the continent. Because many of the sailors have already died.
Especially in the leading Italian maritime trade, the international trade of merchants has been largely break down. Cohn said that “One of the most important economic effects of the plague is the revolt. While the number of revolt was 470 between the years of 1200 and 1348, this number has quadrupled after the plague epidemic.”(228). France is also affected by the rebellion. As in Italy, there were revolts in France and Flanders. And Cohn add that “First, Parisian bourgeois, Charles, a Parisian councilman Under the leadership of Taussac, they rebelled against the new monetary policy that the king changed and the new taxes that increased because of the Century Wars.”(220)
Another economic result is related to animals. In addition to the animals that were destroyed during the epidemic, many animals remained both neglected and stray due to the death of their owners. On the streets there are animals walking around on their own. The survivors of the plague chose to feed more of their land.” People’s food products bring more profit than bread. So , the animals started to feed.”(74). Landowners in England and Spain have increased the number of sheep they feed. Because both sheep’s wool and meat is used and also requires less manpower care. And Byrne claim that “Increasing the number of sheep also influenced the woollen clothing industry and increased the amount of annual clothing exports.”(64).
If we look at the social effects of the plague, the first thing that comes before us is the testaments. Many people, who did not believe that they would survive the epidemic, did not want their property or land to be recognized by someone after their death. As a consequence of the testamentary tradition, notaries who prepared and ratified the t were among the sought-after persons. The documents approved by these notaries have survived testaments o the present day.
Although they are not numerous, since they have reached only a few documents from the testament, the information they contain is valuable. Since the preparation and approval of the testaments is increased, it has become one of the job groups that are profitable due to plague. For example “The only official document which succeeded to come from Perpignan to the present in April, May and June of 1348 is the testament.”(52). The reason for this is perhaps the fact that official institutions leave their jobs. Because, during the plague epidemic, many councils were disbanded and municipalities were not working.
Also the epidemic has also weakened social relations. The father is forbidden to his child, to his wife and to the other to a brother. No one can find money or friends to bury their dead, because of relatives do not meet each other. The members of their people bury their dead in a pit and bury them, also they can do it without a priest. Lindeman says that “No more death bells in churches.”(39). The reason for releasing the bell is probably because of the huge number of deaths. If the bell is ring for every dead person, this sound should be discontinued many times during the day.
In British society, the most abused people have always been beggars and criminals. In this period, the most valuable profession among the grave the number of people to work as a result of understanding that the plague is infected. “As a result of the demand of beggars and criminals, the social and economic status of these strata has improved.”(80). Funeral ceremonies for the island community also included a number of social tasks that had to be fulfilled. Therefore, families could not fulfil their last duties against their dead relatives, and traditional ceremonies were temporarily abandoned during this period.
When we consider religion, religion is an inevitable part of social life, and the plague has also affected religious life. Many ceremonies were cancelled. Because many churches and monasteries member is dead. Because the death of many clerics meant that the church lost its authority over the people, this deficiency was immediately compensated, and the previous strict rules were ignored, and the standards were also reduced, and the middle-aged men who lost their wife from the plague were hired as priests. The same priests at the same time served in many places also agreed to do.
This has led to the take place of the person does not have enough knowledge and experience in the church. The most important social impact of Black Death is that of the Jews. The Flagellant movement should be considered first. The plague has caused the hatred against authority and the church. As a result, the Flagellant movement has become a short-lived but effective movement. Because of this movement, Jews had to escape from where they lived. The Jewish population declined and the division also started.
The plague epidemic, which affects a large part of the population, also has been influential in various cultural areas. First, it brought the end of the developing culture. The plague also affected literature. The writers of that period showed the terrible face of the plague in their works. We can see other important information is included in their works. Perhaps the most important cultural result of the plague is the development of national languages.
As mentioned earlier, the number of members of the upper class among the dead people is quite high for various reason. Many churches were empty and inexperienced priests, and even earlier secular ones were brought to religious duties. The loss of power of the upper class means that the loss of Latin. As a result, nation languages have started to gain importance. The image of black death was artificially personified with a skeleton figure wearing a golden crown and grinning with a cynical attitude. “The dance of death was used as a common theme. The dance is pretty quick and easy show you how you die. However, the intellectual continuity was lost”(62).
Nevertheless, new universities have been established as a positive contrast. Because there has also been a serious decrease in the number of staff employed in universities, and now the people cannot afford to go to another city. When the fear of getting sick was imprisoned in their own regions, new universities were set up to continue their education. But these local institutions are smaller. Some are financed by donations. The teachers who will be trained in this area are brought from lower schools.
Because you can find the people who know the Latin people are only here. Latin is the language of higher education. In addition to universities, grammar schools were opened and these were filled with less educated people. These people are those who have studied Latin less. Therefore they used their own language instead of Latin. Children studying in grammar schools have continued to study Latin to understand and speak Latin language. In this period, more medieval Latin is used. Ancient Latin `s use is very less. A movement was started in Italy for the widespread use of Latin and this movement has spread to other countries. Even though efforts were effective, local languages continued to develop at lower level schools.
“Some historians think that this bilingual education system leads to the Renaissance, while others reject it”(51-52). One example of the development of local languages is the Irish language. Because in Ireland, after the plague epidemic, the Anglo-Irish language changed with the old Irish language. Although all of the residents of the UK were French, the texts were translated into English rather than French, and in 1362 the use of French was prohibited in the case of an official situation. The reason for this is perhaps the fact that Britain was in the middle of its Century Wars with France.”
The number of studies on the plague in the picture area is quite high. For example, in 1562, painter Peter Brueghel painted the horrors of the plague. His work is called the Death Victory. In the literary field, Canterbury Tales also provide important references to the plague”(44). Recommendations written by doctors during the epidemic also have an important place. Classical views and ways of protecting from disease. For example, closing all doors and windows and suggests the burning of poisonous plants.
Some societies, the cause of the epidemic, the horoscope (astrology), superstitions, witches, also even witches were burned to get rid of the disease. Some societies saw this epidemic as ‘a wrath of God’. In response, they found refuge in the sanctuaries, saints and saints that they attributed to holiness, and applied to a number of sacred objects from the saints. They thought that they would resort to the epidemic by circulating the remaining things in the cities. In this way, the clergy took over the work of medicine. They also tried to treat the epidemic with crosses, candles, exorcisms. In fact, one of the most frequently used ways to appease God’s anger was the burning of Jews, just like witches. With the inability to prevent the epidemic, the societies became frightened.
They escaped from where they were and caused the epidemic to spread more. One way or another, the plague came to Europe. In the dark years of Europe ,citizens which was under the influence of the church and was not crossed by racism, they suffered from the plague at the same time . Besides scholastic European civilization and feudal administration, they also suffered by feudal lords and other bad governments. The Europe of that period was a suitable atmosphere for the plague.
Life in crowded cities and places, sewers, dirt was a suitable environment for the plague. The bacteria spread in a short time could now transmit to humans even by air. In a short time, 75% of the death rate was 100% suddenly. While nobody thought of the rats, the doctors said the disease was by airborne, and the members of the church described disease as a punishment of God for humanity. In the mass deaths, clergy people were constantly trying to brainwash by collecting people.
The plague could sometimes be so dangerous that he could kill the person in a very short time, sometimes within hours. Although the church showed that it was God’s punishment, people didn’t believe it anymore. However, the people of the church, who had found another solution, they directed the citizens to the Jews. witches and Jews were portrayed as the cause of the plague. Many principals and important people from the kingdom lost their lives, like the ordinary people on the street.
In short, the ”Angel of Death“ did not choose the victim. Pope could not stop this disease that destroyed thousands of people a day. He wanted God’s help to bless the Ron river. He wanted people to bathe in the river, but the plague spread there faster then the other areas. The Jews were killed as the cause of the disease, on the other hand, the sick people were killed by healthy people. In short, the massacre were started in Europe. Some people call this situation as God’s punishment for the sexes and frequent bathing, and some extreme religious people were waiting to die thinking that the world had come to the end. While another one tried to defeat death by herbs, spells and songs, some organized messengers warned the people against the Jews.
Briefly, Europe was killed by ignorance alongside bacteria. Nobody could cure the disease that killed half of Europe and killed 75 – 100 million people in 15 years. The end of the disease was again from the disease. The plague had gone so far that he killed his infected person in less than a minute. However, the disease was not transmitted to anyone, because the disease died with the person. In the passing period, the disease gradually began to disappear. After this great outbreak, the confidence in the church in Europe was shaken, and gradually progress was made in the field of medicine.
As a result, the plague epidemic has not only affected every part of the people, but also affected the economic, social, political and cultural life. Changed the demographic map of Europe. The people caused psychological distrust and fear. He weakened social relations, brought trade and religious practices to a standstill. The death of many people has caused a change in every area. Some jobs have begun to earn a lot more money, some products have become more expensive.
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