Necrosis and Apoptosis, and Parkinson’s Disease Therapy

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We do not have an answer to what causes Parkinson’s disease (PD), but there are plenty of suggestions on how we can mitigate it. PD is a long term disorder in the central nervous system that affects the motor system (Gupta, 2008) . Those who have PD there is rapid cell death along with a variety of other grim developments. The two main divisions of cell death covered in this article is necrosis and apoptosis. Understanding the effects of those two main cell deaths, researchers have came up with a therapy that could make a difference. After reading this research essay you will be educated on a current debatable topic that mechanistic based therapy can help save those diagnosed with PD and how it would succeed.

Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease, Necrosis, Apoptosis, Mechanistic based therapy

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is found as a very common disorder in those who are over 65 years of age. It is world wide, with the coverage of about three to four percent of the population. With PD the nervous system is under attack by your own body, it is the detertiation and/or death of your cells, particularly the neurons (specialized cells) in your brain called A9 midbrain dopaminergic (mDA). A9 DA neurons go to the dorsal striatum then forms the commands over voluntary movement, also called nigrostriatal pathway (Kim, 2017). When this pathway starts to break down or weaken, levels of dopamine start to “decrease in the striatum, causing a resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait dysfunctions” (Kim, 2017). There is currently a treatment used to help PD patients live a greater quality of life. It is called dopamine replacement therapy, even though it works well, over time it fades away and needs a stronger dosage which leads to far worse side effects (Sauter, 2000). Biologist B. Sauter stated that “ dopamine replacement theory is only a symptomatic treatment and cannot stop or modify the disease progression” (Sauter, 2000). In view of Sauter’s fact, it pushes the importance of conducting more research for neuroprotective or neurorestorative therapy which is driven by mechanistic based therapy.

In order to understand how neuroprotective or neurorestorative therapy would work you first need basic understanding of the different kinds of cell death and how they affect the body. Necrosis, is known to be an accidental cell death. It’s death is not a natural occurrence, it is caused by factors outside of the cell including toxins, trauma, and infection. Apoptosis on the other had is known as autonomous or intentional cell death. In opposition to necrosis, apoptosis is a natural occurring death triggered by itself. The word death doesn’t come across as a positive term, but in biology the death of cells has positive effects. The researchers from the journal “Consequences of Cell death” explain it the best. They revealed that dendritic cells (DC) consume the dead cells debris, it then forms a compartment inside which allows the it to gain nutrients that aid development, immune responses, and the internalizing of pathogens (1234567890). This process is called phagocytosis and in order for uptake to be simulated there needs to be high levels of Major-histocompatibility complex (MHC). MHC is a group of genes that tells proteins, located on the surfaces of cells, to assist the immune system recognize foreign substances (Bian, 2017). Unfortunately, if to much of necrosis and/or apoptosis take place it overpowers the action of MHC and inhibits phagocytosis to occur. The effect of that leads to the collection of debris from dead cells, build up of antigens (due to the lack if MHC, immune support), and consequently leads to death (Anilkumar, 2017).

The condensed definition of neuroprotective therapy is therapies that grant the neuroprotection of cells (in particular dopaminergic neurons) and neuroprotection from agents. As for neurorestorative therapy, it is a therapy that supports or maintains the neurological functions. After learning how neuroprotective therapy can diminish or control PD, numerous of scientist jumped on the waggon to get it into action. Refresh your memory that PD is a neurodegenerative disease, it breaks down and/or kills cells found in the brain. These disease-modifying therapies

Overall, the neuroprotection of cell death helps the immune system fight of dangerous foreign substances and the induction of apoptosis. Neurorestorative therapy helps in PD by stopping or slowing down the process of premature cells of immune cells from undergoing necrosis. Scientist are still researching different ways to approach these therapies along with experimenting on animals. Results of these “to date” experimentations, the results have been weak signals. They suggest that newly diagnosed PD patients are to be made aware of the present therapeutic strategies being explored to provide hope.


Cite this paper

Necrosis and Apoptosis, and Parkinson’s Disease Therapy. (2021, Sep 17). Retrieved from https://samploon.com/necrosis-and-apoptosis-and-parkinsons-disease-therapy/

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