The Great Awakening was a religious revival that spread through the colonies from about 1730 to 1740. The revival was all about questioning religious leaders and beliefs, and it also contributed to the separation of state and church in the colonies. One thing that contributed to the separation was the decline of theocracies. The Puritan church had been tied closely with government and the ruling of the colonies since it first came to the new world. With the new morals and ideals that arose during the great awakening people no longer support the heavy influence that Church members had in politics. Many people also switched out from the Puritan church to a different denomination. This caused for the theocracy established by the Puritan Church in so many areas to decline and eventually end.
Another reason the church and state separated was the new morals and views, that were reflected in the “New Lights”. The New Lights were people that left the congregational church and founded 12 different separatist churches. Separatist churches, were christian churches that believed the church and state needed to have no effect on the other. They also allowed for women to speak in public and participate in the church, and they refused to be silenced by the “Old Lights”. The Old Lights were clergy who tried to fight the influence the great awakening and keep the long standing church traditions of the colonies alive.
The French and Indian War was a conflict fought from 1754 to 1763 and it was between the British and French and their Native allies. The war resulted in Britain gaining all French territory from the coast to the mississippi river, however they are left with a massive debt, ended the policy of salutary neglect, and passed the Proclamation of 1763. The effects of the war caused two major things to occur; one was the roots of unification had begun to grow, and two the colonist began to disagree and fight against British policies. The colonies were not yet an “American” country, but the war showed that colonies could work together and unify to better support and protect themselves. This is illistraighted with the Albany Plan of Union, which was created by Ben Franklin, and was a response to French domination of the war, and its goal was to coordinate the colonial war effort and promote unity. The plan ultimately failed with only 7 of 13 colonies showing, but it showed the start of a collective society. The colonies also began to realise that they were not entirely british citizens because they were left to fight the war on their own for 2 years, and not offered the same protection as the citizens living in the Homeland.
The war also directly caused the revolution because it led to much of the civil unrest and protest between the colonies and Britain, because Britain ended its policy of salutary neglect and began to impose high taxes on the colonist to pay of the debt. The colonist thought it was unfair because they did not have any representation in government that was taxing them. They also thought they should be paid for the two years they fought alone. With the end of salutary neglect, colonist now had to follow all mandated laws, rules, and acts, including navigation acts which heavily restricted their trade and lead them to boycott British goods and smuggle in goods from other countries.
I disagree with the statement that England lost the war rather than America won it because America had several decisive victories that changed the tide of the war and the american soldiers were more spirited and faithful to their cause. America had very disorganized, untrained, and undisciplined troops that were a very meger army when compared to the British. This ragtag team was still however able to get pivotal wins at the Battle of Trenton and the Battle of Saratoga. In the victory at Trenton the Americans were able to capture 1000 Hessian mercenaries, which discouraged more of the Germans from being in fight, and the fight also raised troop morale after the long winter at valley forge. The win in the Battle of Saratoga officially marked the turning point of the war, snd momentum was now in favor of the Americans. At this battle to Patriots were able to get their first major and convincing victory. This win convinced the French to get involved and support the colonies.
The American soldiers also were fighting for a cause and their home, while the British troops did not have a reason to fight and had been shipped away from their homes. British expectations going into the fight were very arrogant because they believed that they at most fight a couple scrimmishes before the would have beaten the colonist back into submission and scatter the rebellion. They did not plan to be pulled into a long, drawn out war, or the fighting spirit of America. The British soldiers also were only fighting because they were ordered to by the King, and wanted to return home.