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The American Revolution

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The American Revolution essay
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The American revolution transpired in 1775. In 1765 Great Britain was in great debt caused by the seven-year war. Since they needed money quickly they started taxing the American colonies with an operation called “The Stamp Act”. This ended poorly despite trying a second time. Both times they had to take down the taxes. By then Britain ordered 1000 troops to Boston to take control. With that, the tax on tea hadn’t been taken down. Rebel groups started to burn vessels and buildings of Great Britain and of the ones who supported them. At some point, they started to dump tea of ships.

After that, Great Britain sent 3000 more troops causing Boston and Mausitusauts to now be under the direct rule of Great Britain. The colonies all gathered with their best thinkers for their first continental congress. It consisted of John Adams, John Jay, George Washington, Samual Adams, Patty Henry, John Dickinson. They decided to tell the local militias to start arming. The British General Thomas Gage ordered 700 troops to the countryside to destroy stores of arms and ammunition controlled by the rebels in Concord. They set out in the middle of the night. Patriots like Paul Revere rode ahead to alert the rebels and give them time to prepare. Lexington was the place where the rebels met the British force.

At some point, someone shot. That shot which was “The shot heard around the world” marked the beginning of The American Revolution. The battle of Concord ended with the British under siege of the American Militiamen back in Boston. Col Benedict Arnold went to take British stronghold fort Ticonderoga. He was planning to get men on the way but found The green mountain Boys Lead by Ethen Allen. They wanted to work together but they each wanted to be in charge. In the end, the Ethen Allen won and lead the attack. The attack was complete with no resistance. For this loss, King George fired General Gage and hired General William Howe. The congress decided to make a proper army they would first have to place a commander in chief. George Washington was picked and sent to Boston where the siege was still happening on.

Trying to break out of the siege the British forces were planning to take Bunker hill. Before they did the information was intercepted. An American spy has now told the militia. They took a defensive position on breed’s hill and Bunker Hill. On June 17, 1775, British forces attack Bunker and Breed\’s hill. British forces tried to storm the hill twice both times failing. The Continentals opened barrages of gunfire for 3 hours until they had run out of ammunition and were forced to retreat. That allowed the British forces to take the hill. This battle wasn’t considered a continental loss. The British suffered 1,000 casualties compared to the continentals 400. At that point, Congress seeing there recent victories wanted to try to save the relationship with the British. They asked them to remove the taxes and the war would stop. Great Britain refused and kept the tax in place.

For the remainder of 1775, There were very few engagements from both sides of the war. The British forces burned down towns of Falmouth, Massachusetts and Norfolk, Virginia in response to earlier anti-British incidents. For these actions, the British were seen as brutes causing French and Spanish to start sending supplies to the rebels. On December 31, 1775, An attack lead by Benedict Arnold and general Montgomery for a “two-pronged attack” in an effort to invade Canada. The Continentals had succeeded in Montreal but failed in Quebec city due to a harsh snowstorm and smallpox. The Continentals were pushed all the way back to Fort Ticonderoga. Henry Knox brings all of the ammunition from Fort Ticonderoga to the siege in Boston. At night the Continentals set up cannons on Dorchester Heights setting their sights on Boston. At the break of dawn, the British forces spotted the cannons on the horizon causing them to lose the small flank they had left. The British forces were forced to evacuate leaving the Continentals and George Washington with their first major victory.

On June 28, 1776 combined British assault forces lead by General Sir Henry Clinton try to take Charleston but are defeated by a small American Patriot force lead by Charles Lee. In preparation of the British arrival, George Washington moved his army to New York. Congress had finally found the reason why they were fighting. Thomas Jefferson was elected to write the Declaration of Independence. On July 4, 1776, the United States of America was born. 130 warships and 25,000 men were sent to New York. The British landed in Staten Island as the Americans took defensive positions in Brooklyn Heights. The British finally attack and use A decoy technique to demolish the Americans. The Americans retreated back to Brooklyn heights. They were trapped by the British and the East river. The British forces dug in for a siege until some fog rolled in and the American army could escape across the river. The British continued to chase and engage with the Americans With the Battle Kip’s bay, Battle of Harlem heights and the Battle of White Plains. Washington army had fled all the way back to pennsylvania.

On Christmas day George Washington’s army attacked Trenton where the Hessian reinforcements had been resting. The Hessian Forces surrendered in groups. General Cornwallis lead British forces to counter attack Washington. Washington defeated the force in the battle of Assunpink Creek. With Washington’s superior flanking maneuvers they were also able to defeat the British forces in the battle of Princeton. All of that was accomplished in a time period of 10 days (December 25, 1776 – January 4, 1777). The British Forces decide to abandon southern New Jersey, letting Washington take camp in Morristown.

Elsewhere Newport, Rhode island is taken by the British. Benjamin Franklin was sent to France to convince them to join the war. The French didn’t join unless it was for sure a victory. On August 2, 1777, St Leger’s smaller force put Fort Stanwix in siege. On August 22, 1777 British troops withdraw from the siege all thanks to General Arnold. Arnold used a loyalist spy, Han Yost Schuyler to scare the british. He made a deal that if he starts rumors that arnold forces are coming to attack the fort Arnold would spare his life. To ensure it would be done they held his brother hostageThe British came up with a plan to split the Americans in two with General Burgoyne in Montreal and General William Howe in New York would advance through Hudson valley and meet in the middle. This would stop large numbers of reinforcements from travelling across. It would also separate congress from Washington.

On September 19, 1777 the plan was put into action with General Burgoyne’s force moving south easily obliterating Fort Ticonderoga but held back by a strong resistance in the battle of Benington. Instead of pushing North general Howe went to capture Philadelphia, the American capital. He defeated Washington in the Battle of Brandywine Creek forcing congress to escape to York. Burgoyne was on his own falling to the force of Haretio Gates and Benedict Arnold. Benedict Arnold attacked the British force disobeying orders and demolished them. In response the French decided to join the war. On February 6, 1778 France was officially in the war. Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Steuben hired by Benjamin Franklin came to Washington and gave his troops real military training. Washington finally had an army to work with. ON the June 18, 1778 the British ordered General Clinton to evacuate Philadelphia and consolidate all of the forces to New york.

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